Salvia divinorum

From Academic Kids

Diviner's sage
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Lamiales
Family:Lamiaceae
Genus:Salvia
Species:S. divinorum

Template:Taxobox section binomial botany

Salvia divinorum (also known as diviner's sage, ska maria pastora or simply salvia) is a psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the Lamiaceae (mint) family. The plant is grown by the Mazatec indigenous people of the Oaxaca mountains of southern Mexico in isolated, moist and secret plots. It has been used by their shamans for centuries for healing during spirit journeys. It is a pure cultivar that does not seem to occur in the wild anywhere in the world.

The primary active dissociative psychoactive chemical is known as Salvinorin-A, but Salvia contains other diterpenes, Salvinorins B-F and Divinatorins A-C. Salvinorin A is the most potent naturally-occurring psychoactive chemical compound known, active at 100µg sublingually.[1] (http://www.erowid.org/plants/salvia/salvia_faq.shtml) Recent research has shown that Salvinorin A is a selective agonist of the kappa opioid receptors, a receptor class largely ignored by other known psychoactive compounds1,2, although several kappa-agonist drugs are used in the medical field. It is unknown at this time whether the powerful effects of S. divinorum can be attributed in whole (or even in part) to kappa agonism.

Contents

Usage and Effects

Traditional Use

The traditional Mazatec method for ingesting salvinorin involves chewing a ball of 15 to 20 fresh salvia leaves for an extended period of time. Salvinorin-A is considered to be inactive when ingested, perhaps because digestive enzymes destroy active components; therefore, emphasis is placed on holding the leaves (and also the saliva secreted during chewing) in the mouth as long as possible, to facilitate absorption through the oral mucosa.

Vaporization and Smoking

Missing image
SalviaD.jpg
1oz bag of dried Salvia leaves.

Dry leaves are typically smoked in a pipe. Although some users may prefer use of a hookah or a bong to cool the smoke, the active principles are liable to condense and therefore substantially reduce potency in this case. The vaporisation temperature required to release the salvinorin-A from the plant material is quite high and requires an intense direct flame, typically from a butane torch lighter. Some people choose to use a vaporizer, which can significantly lower the amount of plant matter required for effects, however the temperatures required are quite a bit higher than that produced by apparatus designed for vaporizing tobacco or cannabis.

Many people have prepared fortified salvia leaves for smoking; that is, leaves to which a concentrated extract of salvinorin-A has been added, in order to minimize the overall amount of smoking required. Extract of concentrated salvinorin may be taken sublingually or smoked.

Subjective Effects

Most users find that the effects of salvinorin are not conducive to socializing or getting high at parties; in fact, while under the influence most people tend to find any external stimuli distracting. Most people under the influence of salvia will remain in place, sometimes catatonic, although some users may attempt to move around. This can be especially dangerous as the user, in an altered state of consciousness, is at a greater risk of unintended bodily injury. It is advisible to have a sober trip sitter present to watch out for others.

The effects of salvia are found by many to be highly spiritual and entheogenic, and useful for meditation. Consciousness is retained until the highest doses, but body control, awareness of externalities, and individual personality can disappear with even modest amounts.

At lower doses the user may experience spontaneous laughter, mild closed-eye visuals, stuttering or strobing visual effects, changes in depth perception, and a heightened sense of color and texture.

Moderate doses appear trance-like. Time distortion and open-eye visuals become increasingly apparent. Fractal patterns and geometric shapes may be noticeable with eyes open, and can be very confusing. Many people experience sensations of falling, similar to what is occasionally felt at the onset of sleep. The user may experience fully formed visions of other places, people, and events, especially with eyes closed.

At high doses, the effects become more powerful and shamanic, and may additionally include out-of-body experiences, perceptions of gravitational distortion, vertigo, sensations of wind or physical pressure, hearing voices, flanging of sound, significant open and closed-eye visuals, experiencing alternate realities, contact with beings or entities, and dissociation. The salvia experience is quite different from that of most other hallucinogenic drugs and may be overwhelming, even with the correct set and setting.

Many salvia users, during high-dose out-of-body experiences, may suddenly "merge" with objects. With the significant time distortion typical of salvia, users may live a lifetime as another person, or as an inanimate object, such as a wall or a piece of furniture. The experiences can be extremely pleasant, or very frightening and confusing.

People often fail to achieve the effects the first time they try the plant. Once one is acquainted with the effects, however, subjective dosage requirements appear to actually decrease. Salvia seems to exhibit a "reverse-tolerance" factor in some users; with repeated use, decreased dosage may be possible for the same level experience.

About 10% of people seem to be unaffected by Salvia.

Duration and After-Effects

If inhaled, the effects do not last long relative to most drugs. It is comparable to smoked DMT in its duration, with the main experience lasting only 5 minutes and generally ending completely within 15. However at higher doses, the full gamut of effects may last as long as 30 minutes. The first 5 minutes are very intense and users can be extra sensitive to stimuli. Chewing and ingestion cause longer-lasting, but generally somewhat milder effects.

Many people report extreme time distortion as the heaviest (and sometimes scariest) effect. Reports of the drug triggering episodes of depression and schizophrenia have also been noted, although most users report no hangover or negative after-effects, and salvia has not been found to be either physically or psychologically addictive. There are no proven health risks associated with salvia use, although salvia's long-term effects on the human body are not well documented.

Chemistry

Missing image
Salvinorin-A-structure.png
Salvinorin A

The primary active constituent is Salvinorin A, sum formula C23H28O8. Unlike most other known psychoactive compounds, Salvinorin A is not an amine--meaning it contains no nitrogen functional group. The Salvinorin group of compounds (including Salvinorin A, Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C) are called neoclerodane diterpenoids.

Extraction and purification of Salvinorin A has been documented but should only be attempted by qualified researchers with experience in chemistry and the proper laboratory equipment. Measurement of safe dosages is difficult and requires a sophisticated analytical balance, due to the extreme quantitative potency of Salvinorin A.

Legal status

Until the late 1990s, not many people knew about salvia. The advent of the Internet and the realization that the plant was not as of yet legally controlled engendered numerous Internet mail-order businesses who sold dried salvia leaves, sometimes for exorbitant prices.

The general public became increasingly aware of salvia in 2002. As of June 1, 2002, Australia became the first country to ban salvia and salvinorin. [2] (http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/news/salvia_australia.htm), [3] (http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,5717251%255E3102,00.html) In late 2002, Rep. Joe Baca (D-California) introduced a bill in the United States House of Representatives to schedule salvia as a controlled substance, and the DEA has indicated on its website that it is aware of salvia and is evaluating the plant for possible scheduling.

Press accounts of efforts to ban salvia often quote law enforcement and government officials who exhibit an inaccurate knowledge of the drug's effects, and frequently characterize the "high" as "chewable marijuana", or as identical to LSD and PCP (three drugs with quite dissimilar effects). This is partly due to the lack of extensive study done on the drug to ascertain possible long-term effects, or studies done to delve deeper into the workings of the drug, as well as the fact that the drug is relatively new in the United States.[4] (http://www.jsonline.com/news/wauk/dec02/105242.asp), [5] (http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/neighborhoods/stories.nsf/Home/MO/St.+Charles+County/St.+Peters/30258B2ECD2DDEF086256C9800735A05?OpenDocument&Headline=City%20tries%20to%20prohibit%20substance)

Botany

Unlike other sages, Salvia divinorum produces very few seeds, and the seeds it does produce seldom germinate. It appears to have very little histocompatibility variation, so the pollen from a plant genetically identical to the style fails to reach the ovule. It is propagated by cuttings and by falling over and growing new roots. Although reportedly (Valdez, et al) isolated stands of S. divinorum exist in its native range, these are thought to be purposefully created and tended by the people of the region. Therefore it is considered a true cultivar and thus does not occur naturally in the wild anywhere.

For the most part, the fate of the species lies with a very small number of clone plants. Of these few clones, there are only two that are in any kind of public circulation; the Wasson/Hofmann strain, and the Blosser ("Palatable") strain. The former is a strain discovered by those whose name the plant bears, when on a visit to the Mazatecs. The latter is the same case, in regards to name, and was discovered in Oaxaca; it is called "Palatable" as well, as it is said to have more palatable leaves when ingested orally than those of the Wasson/Hofmann strain, though other reports state that there is little difference between the taste of the plants. Other varieties are also grown, including the Luna strain which is a strange offshoot of the Hofmann/Wasson line. A few other strains exist, but they are mostly quite similar, in potency, effect, and growth.

References

  1. Chavkin C, Sud S, Jin W, Stewart J, Zjawiony JK, Siebert DJ, Toth BA, Hufeisen SJ, Roth BL Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations (http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/308/3/1197) J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Mar;308(3):1197-203
  2. Roth BL, Baner K, Westkaemper R, Siebert D, Rice KC, Steinberg S, Ernsberger P, Rothman RB Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist  (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=12192085) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 3;99(18):11934-9

External links

eo:Salvia divinorum fr:Salvia divinorum nl:Salvia divinorum pl:Szałwia wieszcza pt:Salvia divinorum

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