From Academic Kids

This article is about the Capital city of Vietnam. For the puzzle game, see Tower of Hanoi.
Name:Thnh Phố H Nội
Meaning:"inside rivers"
Region:Red River Delta
Ethnicities:Viet, Hoa
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Hanoi (Vietnamese: quốc ngữ H Nội; chữ nm 河内), estimated population 4,100,000 (2004), is the capital of Vietnam and was the capital of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1976. The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Manufactures include machine tools, plywood, textiles, chemicals, and handicrafts. Hanoi is located at 21°2' North, 105°51' East (21.0333, 105.85). [1] (http://earth-info.nga.mil/gns/html/cntry_files.html)

Hon Kiếm Lake in the center of Hanoi, with the streets of the old town in the background (1999)
Hon Kiếm Lake in the center of Hanoi, with the streets of the old town in the background (1999)

In 1010, L Thi Tổ, the first ruler of the L Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt (the name of Vietnam then) to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending, he renamed it Thăng Long (Ascending dragon). Its Chinese-derived name, Đng Kinh, became Tonkin and was applied by Europeans to the entire region. It remained the capital of Vietnam until 1802, when the Nguyen Dynasty moved the capital to Hue. In 1831 the Nguyen Dynasty renamed it H Nội. Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. It became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.

The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940, and liberated in 1945, when it became the seat of Vietnam's government. From 1946 to 1954, it was the scene of heavy fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces. At that point, the city became the capital of an independent North Vietnam.

During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were not disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, immediately repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of all Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were united on July 2, 1976.

In the city are the National University of Vietnam (formerly Hanoi University), Hồ Ch Minh mausoleum, the National History Museum, the Revolution Museum, and several historic monuments. The National Museum of Fine Art is also located in Hanoi.

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Hồ Ty (West Lake)
Hanoi opera house
Hanoi opera house


The following medical facilities are located in Hanoi:


The airport is located in Soc Son District, approximately 25 mi/40 km north of Hanoi. Taxi and bus service is available for travel to the city. There are two main highways linking the airport and city. The highway from the airport to Thang Long Bridge is more direct than Highway 1, which runs along the outskirts of the city. Buses are generally in poor condition, making them unsafe to ride. Most of the city's taxis are metered and in generally good condition. However, visitors should use a private, prearranged vehicle for travel to and from the airport and around the city. This is important due to the significant language barrier for most foreign visitors. Visitors should also note that traffic is usually frantic as streets are packed with bicycles and motorcycles. The transportation infrastructure throughout Vietnam is limited and in poor condition, and this is particularly true in the north. Wartime damage and the depressed economy have left many of Hanoi's roads, bridges and railways in poor condition. Motor scooters, bicycles and rickshaws (cyclos) are the main modes of transportation, although the city also has many new, metered cabs. Visitors should note that they must obtain a Vietnamese driver's license should they wish to drive in Vietnam as an International Driver's License is not accepted.

NOI BAI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (VVNB/HAN) There are four terminals at Noi Bai, including the domestic arrival, domestic departure, international arrival and international departure terminals. There is a separate building with a lounge for diplomatic VIP passengers. Corporate flights that wish to use this VIP area should contact their respective embassies for help applying to the Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There is no special parking area for corporate aircraft, which use the same parking bays as commercial aircraft. The parking area is located quite some distance from the control tower. Closed circuit TV cameras are used in busy areas of the tarmac for ground staff to monitor aircraft movements. However, airport security does not necessarily make any use of the cameras for guarding purposes. The parking area is not separately fenced from the rest of the facility.

Government security forces control security at Noi Bai Airport. Access to the tarmac is controlled though the use of special security passes. However, access to airport facilities may not be effectively monitored as many airport facilities are antiquated or non-existent, and personnel at the airport are subject to corruption.

Negotiating the customs process can sometimes take quite a while. However, firmness, perseverance and diplomacy will achieve a great deal more than becoming upset. In addition, arriving corporate passengers will most likely be solicited for bribes in order to smooth the process of customs and immigration. Airport authorities have also solicited bribes from flight crews in order to ensure clearance. If arriving passengers have a large amount of luggage, the process of going through customs becomes even more difficult.

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Maps of Hanoi

External links

es:Hanoi eo:Hanoi fr:Hano ko:하노이 id:Hanoi he:האנוי nl:Hanoi nds:Hanoi ja:ハノイ no:Hanoi pl:Hanoi pt:Hani sk:Hanoj fi:Hanoi sv:Hanoi vi:Hà Nội zh:河內


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